Note: These examples follow the format described in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers  (7th edition).


A single author

Wilson, Frank R. The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human

. New York: Pantheon, 1998. Print.

A book by two or more authors

Two authors:

Eggins, Suzanne, and Diane Slade. Analyzing Casual Conversation. London:

   Cassell, 1997. Print.

Three authors

Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen. The Rope,

   the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas, 1923-1990
. Austin:

   U of Texas P, 1994. Print.

m>More than three authors
May be listed as in above example, or may name only first and add (Latin for "and others"):

Gilman, Sander, et. al. Hysteria Beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.


A book by a corporate author

American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia.

   New York: Random, 1989. Print.

A work with an editor

Zipes, Jack, ed. The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.


A work with an author and an editor

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat. New York: Washington Square

    Press, 1992. Print.

A work with a title in its title

Hunt, Maurice, ed. Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. New York:

   Modern Language Association of America, 2000. Print.

A dissertation

Fullerton, Matilda. "Women's Leadership in the Public Schools: Towards a Feminist

   Educational Leadership Model." Diss. Washington State U, 2001. Print.

An anthology or a compilation

Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore:

   Johns Hopkins UP, 1997. Print.

Sevillano, Mando, comp. The Hopi Way: Tales from a Vanishing Culture.

   Flagstaff: Northland, 1986. Print.

A work in an anthology

More, Hannah. "The Black Slave Trade: A Poem." British Women Poets of the

   Romantic Era
. Ed. Paula R. Feldman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

   472-82. Print.

Two or more books by the same author

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice,

   1963. Print.

---. The Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion. Toronto: U of Toronto P,

   1991. Print.

An article in a reference book (for example, a dictionary or encyclopedia)

"Mandarin." The Encyclopedia Americana. 1994 ed. Print.

Mohanty, Jitendra M. "Indian Philosophy." The New Encyclopaedia Britannica:

15th ed. 1987. Print.

If a reference work is not well known, provide full publication information as well.

A book published in a second or subsequent edition

Green, Donald. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. 2nd ed.

   Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008. Print.

A multivolume work

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 20 vols.

   London: Macmillan, 1980. Print.

A government publication

United States. Dept. of State. The Global 2000 Report to the President:

   Entering the Twenty-First Century
. Washington: GPO, 1981. Print.


An article in a scholarly journal (volume number only)

Craner, Paul M.  "New Tool for an Ancient Art: The Computer and Music."

   Computers and the Humanities 25 (1991): 303-13. Print.

An article in a scholarly journal (volume number and issue number)

Vickery, Laurie.  "The Politics of Abuse: The Traumatized Child in Toni Morrison

   and Marguerite Duras." Mosaic 29.2 (1996): 91-109. Print.

An article in a newspaper

Kiernan, Vincent. "Study Finds Errors in Medical Information Available on the

   Web." Chronicle of Higher Education 12 June 1998: A25. Print.

Lohr, Steve. "Now Playing: Babes in Cyberspace." New York Times 3 Apr. 1998,

   late ed., sec. 3: 1+. Print.

An article in a magazine (monthly publication)

Murphy, Cullen. "Women and the Bible." Atlantic Monthly Aug. 1993: 39-64. Print.

An article in a magazine (weekly publication)

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. "A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste."

   Business Week 6 May 2002: 94-96. Print.

Book reviews

Socha, Thomas J. Rev. of Learning the Rules: The Anatomy of Children's

by B.J. Bigelow, G. Tesson, and J.H. Lewko. Communication

47 (1998): 91-92. Print.

"Racial Stereotype Busters: Black Scientists Who Made a Difference." Rev. of American

    Science Leaders. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education
25 (1999): 133-34. Print.

Film reviews

Kauffmann, Stanley. "Towards the Shadows." Rev. of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre.

   New Republic 11 Feb. 2002: 26-27. Print.

Mendelsohn, Daniel. Rev. of United 93, dir. Paul Greengrass. New York Review of

21 Sept. 2006: 43-44. Print.

An anonymous article

"The Decade of the Spy." Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27. Print.


A film, videocassette, or DVD

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Steward, Donna Reed, Lionel

   Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.

Laura. Dir. Otto Preminger. Perf Gene Tierney, Dana Andrews, Clifton Webb, Judith

   Anderson, and Vincent Price. Twentieth Century Fox, 1944. Videocassette.

Suspicion. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perf. Cary Grant and Joan Fontaine. 1941.


A television program

"Yes...but is it art?" Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York, 19 Sept.

   1993. Television.

A television interview

Wiesel, Elie. Interview by Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. WABC, New York, 18 April. 2002.


A radio program

"Death and Society." Narr. Joanne Silberner. Weekend Edition Sunday. Natl. Public

   Radio. WUWM, Milwaukee, 25 Jan. 1998.Radio.

"The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation." The Diane Rehm Show. Host Diane Rehm.

   Natl. Public Radio. Web. 30 Jan. 2007.

A radio interview

Breslin, Jimmy. Interview by Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR,

   Boston, 26 Mar. 2002. Radio.

Maynard, Sam. Interview by Christopher Jordan. Day to Day. Natl. Public Radio. Web 27 Feb. 2009.

A podcast

Rennie, Michael. "From Spooky Action to Tiny Radios." Host Steve Mirsky. Science Talk.

   Scientific American, 4 Mar. 2009. MP3 file. 5 Mar. 2009.

A live performance

Medea. By Euripides. Trans. Alistair Elliot. Dir. Jonathan Kent. Perf. Diana Rigg.

   Longacre Theatre, New York. 7 Apr. 1994. Performance.

A sound recording

Joplin, Scott. Treemonisha. Perf. Carmen Balthrop, Betty Allen, and Curtis Rayam.

   Houston Grand Opera Orch. And Chorus. Cond. Gunther Schuller. Sony, 1996. CD.