NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY SYSTEM

The Notes and Bibliography system is generally used by writers in literature, history, and the arts.

Works consulted are listed in a bibliography.  Documentation of specific portions of a work (bibliographic citations) is listed in notes (footnotes or endnotes).  Footnotes are listed at the bottom of pages throughout the paper.  Endnotes are listed at the end of the text of the paper.

Please note:

In the bibliography no page numbers are given for books.  For journals, give the beginning and ending page numbers of the article.

In notes, page numbers should be given for specific passages being referenced.  This applies to both books and periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers).

In some of the examples below a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be included. The Chicago Manual of Style defines the DOI as "...a unique and permanent name assigned to a ...journal article or book...in any medium in which it is published."  " ... Appending a DOI to http://dx.doi.org in the address bar of an Internet browser will lead to the source."

Here are examples for the bibliography accompanied by footnote/endnote: 

Citing Print Sources / Notes and Bibliography 


BOOKS

 

One author:

Rushdie, Salman. The Ground Beneath Her Feet. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.

1.       Salman Rushdie, The Ground Beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 31.

Two authors:

Johnson, Kurt, and Steve Coates. Nabokov's Blues: The Scientific Odyssey of a
     Literary Genius.  Cambridge, MA: Zoland Books, 1999.   

1.       Kurt Johnson and Steve Coates, Nabokov's Blues: The Scientific Odyssey of a Literary Genius  (Cambridge, MA: Zoland Books, 1999), 42.

 

Three authors:

Schellinger, Paul, Christopher Hudson, and Marjik Rijsherman. Encyclopedia
     of the Novel.
Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998.

1.       Paul Schellinger, Christopher Hudson, and Marjik Rijsherman,
Encyclopedia of the Novel (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998), 100.

For information on four or more authors, see The Chicago Manual of Style
(16th edition) Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16

Editor as author:

Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization Through the Ages. London:
    Philip Wilson,    1999.

1.      Ori Z. Soltes, ed. , Georgia: Art and Civilization Through the Ages
(London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 123.

 

Organization, Association, or Corporation as author:

Catholic News Service. Stylebook on Religion 2000: A Reference Guide
    and Usage Manual. 
Washington, D.C.: catholic News Service, 2000.

1.       Catholic News Service, Stylebook on Religion 2000: A Reference Guide
and Usage Manual
(Washington, D.C.: Catholic News Service, 2000), 99.

Chapters of a book:

Weise, Andrew. "The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American
    Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States." In The New Suburban
    History,
edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J.  Sugrue, 99-119.
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

1.       Andrew Weise, "The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African
American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States," in The New
Suburb
nan History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101-2.

Subsequent editions:

Strunk, William, Jr. , and E.  B. White. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York:
    Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

1.       William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New
York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000), 21.



Citing a particular volume in a multivolume work:

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development
    of Doctrine.
Vol. 1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition. Chicago:
    University of Chicago Press, 1971.

1.       Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development
of Doctrine,
vol. 1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1971), 135.


PERIODICALS


Scholarly journals:

 A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be added at the end of the citation
(when a DOI is available)

Citing a journal with a volume number but no issue number:

Loften, Peter. "Reverberations Between Wordplay and Swordplay
    in Shakespeare." Aeolian Studies 2 (1989): 12-29.

1.       Peter Loften, "Reverberations Between Wordplay and Swordplay
in Shakespeare," Aeolian Studies 2 (1989): 26.

Citing a journal with a volume number and an issue number:

McMillen, Sally G. "Antebellum Southern Fathers and the Health Care
    of Children." Journal of Southern History 60, no. 3 (1994): 513-32.

1.       Sally G. McMillen, "Antebellum Southern Fathers and the Health
Care of Children," Journal of Southern History 60, no. 3 (1994): 520.



Popular magazines and newspapers are generally dealt with in notes.
For more complete information see
The Chicago Manual of Style
Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16


Popular magazine:

1.       Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000,
44.

Newspaper:

1.       William S. Niederkorn, "A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare'
Discovery," New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts Section, Midwest Edition.



Book reviews in periodicals:


Ratliff, Ben. Review of The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National
     Identity in Brazil
, by Hermano Vianna. Lingua Franca 9 (April 1999):
     B13-B14

1.       Ben Ratliff, review of The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and
National Identity in Brazil,
by Hermano Vianna. Lingua Franca
(April 1999): B13-B14.

INTERVIEWS AND PERSONAL COMMUNICATION


"Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes..."
For citing in notes, see examples below (for further information
see p. 744 of
The Chicago Manual of Style, Ready Reference
808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16)

1.       Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center
Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.

 

2.       Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J.E. Senn, November
20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection,
National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Published or broadcast interviews:

Published interview:

Bellour, Raymond. "Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview
    with Raymond Bellour." by Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura,
    nos. 3-4 (Summer 1979): 89-94.

1.       Raymond Bellour, "Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis:
Interview with Raymond Bellour," by Janet Bergstrom, Camera
Obscura
nos. 3-4 (Summer 1979): 89-94.

Broadcast interview:

Bundy, McGeorge. Interview by Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer
    News Hour
, PBS (February 7, 1990).

1.       McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer
News Hour,
PBS, February 7,  1990.


Personal communications:

(Covers face to face, telephone or letters. These "are usually run
in the text or given in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography.")
For citing in notes, see example below:

1.       Elliot Templeton, letter to author, September 21, 2009.




Citing Online Sources / Notes and Bibliography

BOOKS

Books downloaded from a library or bookseller:

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics,
    2007. Kindle edition.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics,
    2008. PDF e-book.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics,
    208. Microsoft Reader e-book.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics,
    2008. Palm e-book.

Since electronic formats do not always carry stable page numbers,
you may include a notation of a chapter or section (see below).

1.       Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics,
2008), Palm e-book, chap. 23.


Books consulted online:

Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL (Uniform Resource Locator),
for these can lead the reader directly to an Internet source.  The DOI
is preferred (when available).

Antokoletz, Elliot. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy
    and Bartok
. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

1.       Elliot Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy
and Bartok
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), doi:10.1093/
acprof.oso/9780195365825.001.0001.


Sirosh, Joseph, Risto Miikkulainen, and James A. Bednar.
    "Self-Organization of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections,
    and Dynamic Receptive Fields in the Primary Visual Cortex." In Lateral
    Interactions in the Cortex: Structure and Function
, edited by Joseph
    Sirosh, Risto Miikkulainen, and Yoonsuck Choe. Austin, TX: UTCS
    Neural Networks Research Group, 1996. http://nn.cs.utexas.edu/
    web-pubs/htmlbook96/.  

1.       Joseph Sirosh, Risto Miikkulainen, and James A. Bednar,
"Self-Organization of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections, and
Dynamic Receptive Fields in the Primary Visual Cortex," in Lateral
Interactions in the Cortex: Structure and Function
, ed. Joseph Sirosh,
Risto Miikkulainen, and Yoonsuck Choe (Austin, TX: UTCS Neural
Networks Research Group, 1996), under "Dynamic Receptive Fields," http://nn.cs.utexas.edu/web-pubs/hemlbook96/


Freely available electronic editions of older works:

Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. New York, 1855.  
     http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html

Walt Whitman. Leaves of Grass (New York, 1855), 22,
    http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html

 

 

PERIODICALS

 

Electronic journals:

Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the URL
(Universal Resource Locater)

Warr, Mark. "Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime." American Journal
    of Sociology
106, no. 3 (November 2000): 551-78. doi:10.1086/318964.

1.       Mark Warr, "Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime," American
Journal of Sociology
106, no. 3 (November 2000), doi:10.1086/318964.


Online magazines:

Include the URL (or DOI, if available)

Reaves, Jessica. "A Weighty Issue: Ever-Fatter Kids." Time, March 14, 2001,
      http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,102443,00.html.

1.       Jessica Reaves, "A Weighty Issue: Ever-Fatter Kids," Time,
March 14,2001, http://www.time.com/time/natin/article/
0,0899,102443,00.html
.


Online newspapers:

Include the URL

Mitchell, Alison. "Scars Still Raw, Bush Clashes with McCain." New York Times,
     March 25, 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/politics/
    25MCCA.html

1.       Alison Mitchell, "Scars Still Raw, Bush Clashes with McCain," New York
Times,
March 25, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/politics/
25MCCA.html


Websites:

"...website refers to the collection of documents made available at a specific
location on the World Wide Web by an individual or organization. "
"Citations of site content are best relegated to notes; in works with no
notes, they may be included in the bibliography." For more information
see page 753 of: 
The Chicago Manual of Style  Ready Reference
808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16

1.       "McDonald's Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts," McDonald's Corporation,
accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonald.com/corp/about/factsheets.html


Blogs:

"A weblog-or blog-is a category of website that has evolved to include
a few more or less standard components, including dated entries and
dated comments." "Citations of blog entries are generally relegated
to the notes."  For more information see page 754 of: 
The Chicago
Manual of Style  Ready Reference  808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16

1.       Mike Nizza, "Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says,"
The Lede (blog). New York Times, July 15, 2008, http://thelede.blogs.
nytimes.com/2008/07/15/
.

2.       SteveCO, comment on Nizza, "Go Ahead, Annoy Away."

E-mails & text messages:

These "are usually run in the text or given in a note. They are rarely
listed in a bibliography."  For citing in notes, see example below:

1.       Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000



Library subscription databases:

When citing an article from one of the library's subscription databases,
add the URL "...if the database includes a recommended stable or
persistent form with the document..."   Otherwise, you may include the
name of the database.  For more complete information on library
subscription databases, see
The Chicago Manual of Style  Ready
Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16

1.       William Maiben, "A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,"
Perspectives of New Music  19,  nos. 1-2 (Auturm 1980-Summer 1981): 533, http://www.jstor.org/stable/832614.

2.       Carl Byrd-Bredbenner, "Health, Medicine, and Food Messages in
Television Commercials During 1992 and 1998," Journal of School Health
70 (1997): 63,  Academic Search Premier.

 

FINIS