The Author-Date System is generally used by writers in the physical sciences,
or “Works Cited.” Documentation of specific portions of a work is cited in the text
of the paper in parentheses.
In some of the examples below a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be included.
The Chicago Manual of Style defines the DOI as “…a unique and permanent name
assigned to a …journal article or book…in any medium in which it is published.”
“…Appending a DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser
will lead to the source.”
Examples for “References” or “Works Cited” followed along with the parenthetical citation:
Note: “When a specific page…of the work is cited, it follows the date, preceded by
a comma.” See following example:
(Doniger 1999, 65)
For more on citing specific locators in text citations see p. 797 of The Chicago
Manual of Style (16th edition) Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16
Walker, John R., and Thomas Taylor. 1998. The Columbia Guide to Online
Style. New Columbia University Press.
(Walker and Taylor 1998, 49)
Sechzer, Ian, Samuel Pfaffilin, and Frederick Denmark. 1996. Women and
Mental Health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
(Sechzer, Pfaffilin, and Denmark 1996, 58)
For information on four or more authors, see The Chicago Manual of Style
(16th edition) Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16
Editor as author:
Kamrany, Nake, ed. 1980. Economic Issues of the Eighties. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press.
(Kamrany 1980, 21)
Organization, Association, or Corporation as author:
British Standards Institute. 1985. Specification for Abbreviation of Title Words
and Titles of Publications. Linford Woods, Milton Keynes, UK: British Standards
(British Standards Institute 1985, 33)
Chapters of a book:
Phibbs, Brendan. 1987. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle.” In The Other Side of Time:
A combat Surgeon in World War II, 117-63. Boston: Little Brown.
(Phibbs 1987, 122)
Anderson, Joshua. 1982. The Japanese Film Art and Industry. 2nd ed. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press.
(Anderson 1982, 37)
Citing a particular volume in a multivolume work:
Wright, Sewell, 1969. Theory of Gene Frequencies. Vol. 2 of Evolution and the
Genetics of Population. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Wright 1969, 129)
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be added at the end of the citation
(when a DOI is available)
Citing a journal with a volume number but no issue number:
Calabrese, Edwin, and Albert Baldwin. 1999. “Reevaluation of the
Fundamental Dose-Response Relationship.” Bioscience 49: 725-32.
(Calabrese and Baldwin 1999, 730)
Citing a journal with a volume number and an issue number:
Kitcher, Philip. 1999. “Essence and Perfection.” Ethics 110 (1): 57-78.
(Kitcher 1999, 60)
Popular magazines and newspapers are generally cited within the text.
For more complete information see The Chicago Manual of Style
Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16
“In the January 18, 2010 Newsweek article “The Mother of All Horror Films”
Malcolm Jones states…”
“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article
on February 27, 2010…”
UNPUBLISHED INTERVIEWS AND PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
“In a parenthetical citation, the terms personal communication (or pers. comm.),
unpublished data,and the like may be used after the name(s) of the person(s)
concerned, following a comma.”
(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)
(A.P. Moller, unpublished data)
Books downloaded from a library or bookseller:
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. PDF e-book.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Microsoft Reader e-book.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Palm e-book.
Since electronic formats do not always carry stable page numbers, you may include
a notation of a chapter or section (see below).
(Austen 2008, chap. 23)
Books consulted online:
Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL (Uniform Resource Locator), for these
can lead the reader directly to an Internet source. The DOI is preferred (when available).
Antokoletz, Elliot. 2008. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok.
New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.
Sirosh, Joseph, Risto Miikkulainen, and James A. Bednar. 1996. “Self-Organization
of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections, and Dynamic Receptive Fields in the
Primary Visual Cortex.” In Lateral Interactions in the Cortex: Structure and Function,
edited by Joseph Sirosh, Risto Miikkulainen, and Yoonsuck Choe. Austin, TX: UTCS
Neural Networks Research Group. http://nn.cs.utexas.edu/
(Sirosh and Bednar 1996)
Freely available electronic editions of older works:
Whitman, Walt.1855. Leaves of Grass. New York.
Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the URL (Universal Resource Locater)
Warr, Mark. 2000. “Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime.” American Journal of
Sociology 106, no.3 (November): 551-78. doi:10.1086/318964
Include the URL
Reaves, Jessica. 2001. “A Weighty Issue: Ever-Fatter Kids.” Time, March 14.
Include the URL
Mitchell, Alison. 2001. “Scars Still Raw, Bush Clashes With McCain.” New York
Times, March 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/politics/25MCAA.html.
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. 2008. “Evanston Public Library
Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library.
Accessed July 19. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.
(Evanston Public Library 2008)
E-mails & text messages:
“In a parenthetical citation, the terms personal communication (or pers. comm.) may be used after the name(s) of the person(s) concerned, following a comma.”
(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)
Library subscription databases:
When citing an article from one of the library’s subscription databases, add the
URL “…if the database includes a recommended stable or persistent form with
the document…” Otherwise, you may include the name of the database. For more
complete information on library subscription databases, see The Chicago Manual
of Style Ready Reference 808.02 C53 2010 Ed. 16
Maiben, William. 1981.“A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,” Perspectives
of New Music 19, nos. 1-2, http://www.jstor.org/stabale/832614.
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carl. 1997. "Health, Medicine, and Food Messages in Television
Commercials During 1992 and 1998,” Journal of School Health 70, Academic