APA Style: Reference Citations in Text
Whenever you use someone else's words or ideas in your paper you must
credit the source. This can be done by inserting a reference citation into
the text of your paper.
You may cite your source within a sentence or at the end of a sentence. You may paraphrase the information, but you must include a page number when using a direct quote.
The author's last name is followed by the year of the article or book (enclosed in parentheses). These in text citations enable someone reading your paper to locate the entire citation in the reference list.
Deikman (1971) states that the present data are congruent with bimodal theory of processing.
(This example uses the author's name and the date of the source within the sentence)
The present data are congruent with the bimodal theory of processing (Deikman, 1971).
(This example places the author's name and the date of the source at the end of the sentence)
Examples for direct quotes (note the variations):
She stated, "The 'placebo effect', which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied.
Miele (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect', which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner." (p. 276).
Use a block quotation for any quotations of 40 or more words. Do not enclose the block quotation in quotation marks. Use double quotation marks for any quoted material within a block quotation (see example below):
Miele (1993) found the following:
The "placebo effect", which had been verified in previous studies,
disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.
Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when
real drugs were administered. Earlier studies (e.g. Abdullah, 1984;
Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results
to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
EXAMPLES OF WORKS BY MULTIPLE AUTHORS:
Two authors (cite both names every time the reference occurs
in the text):
(Nightlinger & Littlewood, 1993)
Three, four, or five authors:
List all of the authors the first time the reference occurs:
(Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman & Rock, 1994)
In subsequent citations include only the name of the first author
follow by et al.:
(Wasserstein, et al., 1994)
Six or more authors:
In all references you will cite only the name of the first author
followed by et al.:
(Kosslyn et al. ,1996)
Works with no author:
Cite in the text the first few words from the "reference list" entry
(usually the title) and the year
Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or book
chapter: ...on free care ("Study Finds," 1982)...
Italicize the title of a book or periodical:
...the book College Bound Seniors (1979)...