APA Style 6th Edition
The information listed below is taken from the 6th edition of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Please refer to the manual for further examples:
Ready Reference 808.06615 P9769 2010
APA is now using DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) in some citations.
Definition of a DOI: A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to an item when it is published.
A DOI can be assigned to a journal article or a book (as you will see in the examples listed below) and it is there "...to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet."
You will see DOIs listed for some electronic versions of print books. For journal articles the DOI is located on the first page, near the copyright information. It can also be found in many citations that appear in the results list of a database search. APA now recommends that DOIs should be included in citations when there is a DOI listed.
PLEASE NOTE: APA REQUIRES DOUBLE SPACING IN CITATIONS. WE HAVE USED SINGLE SPACING IN OUR EXAMPLES TO SAVE SPACE
APA STYLE: CITATIONS IN REFERENCE LIST
Print journal article:
Mellers, B.A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences.
Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
Use the DOI when it is available. When a DOI is not available, use the URL for the home page of the journal. Sometimes you will not have a DOI or be able to locate the home page of the journal. Below are examples for all three possibilities:
Electronic journal article with DOI:
Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status,
and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24,
Electronic journal article without DOI, but can locate home page of journal:
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness.
E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
Electronic journal article without DOI and cannot locate home page of journal:
Light, M.A., & Light, I.H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
immigration in the United States and its implications for local law
enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.
Print journal article, issues of journal paginated continuously:
Wolchik, S.A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother
and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.
Print journal article, each issue of journal paginated separately (include issue number in citation):
Klimoski, R. & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in
organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,
Print magazine article:
Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing
worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share
their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5),
Online magazine article:
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about
the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from
Print newspaper article:
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.
The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Online newspaper article:
Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile.
The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.
Electronic version of a print book, with DOI:
Schiraldi, G.R. (2011). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook:
A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].
O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from
Print book (edited book):
Gibbs, J.T. & Huang, L.N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color:
Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco:
Print book (no author or editor):
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield,
MA: Merriam Webster.
Print book (revised edition):
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research.
(Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Print book (reference book):
VandenBos, G.R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington,
DC: American Psychological Association
Print book (entry in a reference book)
Bergmann, P.G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica
(vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Electronic Book (entry in an online reference book):
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford
encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
Print book (chapter in book):
Bjork, R.A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in
human memory. In H.L. Roediger III and F.I.M. Craik (Eds.),
Varieties of memory and consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale,
Electronic book (chapter in book):
Larkin, K.T. (2008). Psychotherapy. In J. Vanin & J. Helsley (Eds.),
Anxiety disorders: A pocket guide for primary care (pp. 113-128).
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000).
Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction
[DVD]. Available from http:www.apa.org/videos/
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio
podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
lang, k.d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York,
NY: Nonesuch Records.