"These benefits and costs that affect individuals other than the decision maker-these external effects-have been termed externalities and can be either positive or negative. Positive externalities produce a benefit to a party other than the decision maker, whereas negative externalities harm an otherwise uninvolved party (Browning and Zupan 2009). There are many applications of the theory of externalities in the economics literature of today; one such example examines the consequences of industrial agriculture, namely livestock production in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

CAFOs are the source of numerous externalities that affect many people. The harm that they cause will be difficult to quantify and correct given current environmental, economic, societal, and political conditions. Though there are potential solutions or mechanisms that could be used to correct these externalities, problems with implementation are likely to arise."

-- Ellen Bast

Verge is an undergraduate journal that is faculty- and student-nominated, and faculty- and student-advised. It collects the best of academic, research-based writing and more creative nonfiction work. The journal's interdisciplinary approach emphasizes the links between different academic departments, as well as the links between the curiosities, inquiries, and achievements of individuals who might not otherwise know about one another's work.

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Our current issue, Verge 11 (academic year 2014-2015), is now available.

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