### Mathematics

**MA 100.
Topics in Contemporary Mathematics
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Selected topics to illustrate the nature of mathematics, its role in society, and its practical and abstract aspects. Applications of mathematics to business and social sciences are explored. Prerequisite: placement exam level of L, M, or H. *Offered fall and spring semesters. Department.*

**MA 110.
Problem Solving and Mathematics: Algebra
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

For students majoring in elementary education. Explores various approaches to problem solving by examining topics such as estimating numerical quantities, probability and statistics, the nature of numeric patterns, functions, and relations. The course focuses on the use of various tools, such as calculators and physical models, as aids in problem solving. Prerequisite: placement level of L, M, or H and ED 101 or ED 103 or permission of both the Department of Education and the instructor. *Offered spring semester of odd years. Department.*

**MA 113.
Problem Solving and Mathematics: Geometry
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

For students majoring in elementary education. Explores various approaches to problem solving by examining topics such as spatial sense and measurement with respect to various geometries, properties of curves and surfaces, coordinate geometry, and transformations. The course focuses on the use of various tools, such as calculators and physical models, as aids in problem solving. Prerequisite: placement level of L, M, or H and ED 101 or ED 103 or permission of both the Department of Education and the instructor. *Offered spring semester. Department.*

**MA 140.
Introduction to Statistics
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Basic concepts of descriptive statistics, simple probability distributions, prediction of population parameters from samples. Problems chosen from the natural and social sciences. Use of the computer in the analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Prerequisite: placement level of M or H. Credit will not be given to those who have received credit for MA 141. *Offered fall or spring semesters. Le, Webster.*

**MA 141.
Statistical Data Analysis with Environmental Issues in View
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR AND ENV)

Basic concepts of descriptive statistics, simple probability distributions, and prediction of population parameters from samples are developed as a means to analyze environmental issues and the debates centered on them. Use of the computer in analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Prerequisite: placement level of M or H. Credit will not be given to those who have received credit for MA 140, MA 168, MA 241 (course inactive), EC 206, or PSY 200. *Offered spring semesters. Le, Webster.*

**MA 145.
Applied Matrix Algebra
(4 Cr.)**

This course will provide an introduction to applications of vectors and matrices. The course will be driven by applications chosen from robotics, computer graphics, coding theory, cryptography, game theory, information retrieval and web search, and machine learning. For example, students will learn Google's PageRank method for ranking web pages. Prerequisite: placement exam. *Offered spring semester of odd years. Brody.*

**MA 160.
Precalculus
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

An applications-oriented, investigative approach to the study of the mathematical topics needed for further coursework in mathematics. The unifying theme is the study of functions, including polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. Graphing calculators and/or the computer will be used as an integral part of the course. Prerequisite: placement level of M or H. *Offered fall and spring semesters. Department.*

**MA 168.
Statistical Methods for the Sciences
(4 Cr.)** (LER MR)

An introduction to statistics with special attention given to methods used in 200 and 300 level science courses. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability models, random variables, expectation, sampling, the central limit theorem, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, two-sample problems, analysis of variance, regression analysis, and nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: placement level H or a minimum grade of C- in MA 160. *Offered fall semester. Webster.*

**MA 170.
Calculus I
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

The concepts of limit and derivative are developed, along with their applications to the natural and social sciences. Prerequisite: placement level of H or a minimum grade of C- in MA 160. Prerequisite to MA 180. Credit will not be given to those who have received credit for MA 171. *Offered fall and spring semester. Department.*

**MA 171.
Calculus I-Environmental
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR AND ENV)

The concepts of limit and derivative are developed, along with their applications to environmental sustainability issues. A symbolic algebra system is used as both an investigative and computational tool. Prerequisite: placement level of H or a minimum grade of C- in MA 160. Prerequisite to: MA 180. Credit will not be given to those who have received credit for MA 170. *Offered fall or spring semester. Webster.*

**MA 180.
Calculus II
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

The concepts of Riemann sums and definite and indefinite integrals are developed, along with their applications to the natural and social sciences. Topics also include infinite sequences and series, tests for convergence or divergence, and power series representations of functions. Prerequisite: Calculus placement exam or a minimum grade of C- in MA 170 or MA 171. Prerequisite to: MA 216, MA 221, MA 222 and MA 240. *Offered fall and spring semesters. Department.*

**MA 216.
Introduction to Applied Mathematics
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Selected topics in applied mathematics offered at the intermediate level. Possible topics include discrete dynamical systems, graph theory, operations research, game theory, and elementary mathematical modeling. Course may be repeated for credit if a different topic is offered. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of C- in MA 180. *Offered fall semester. Le, Tutinas.*

**MA 221.
Linear Algebra
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Vector spaces, linear equations and matrices, linear transformations, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of C- in MA 180. *Offered spring semester. Brody, Le, Tutinas.*

**MA 222.
Calculus III
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Three-dimensional analytic geometry, infinite series, functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and vector calculus. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of C- in MA 180. *Offered fall semester. Department.*

**MA 231.
Differential Equations with Applications
(4 Cr.)**

Introduction to the theory of linear and nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. Equal emphasis on analytic, qualitative, and numeric methods. Applications to biological sciences, chemistry, ecology, economics, physics, and other sciences, including some work in mathematical modeling. Pre- or Co-Requisite: MA 221. *Offered spring semester of even years. Webster.*

**MA 240.
Probability and Statistics
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

A Calculus-based introduction to single variable methods in probability and statistics. Topics will include probability in sample spaces; discrete and continuous random variable; normal, binomial, geometric, Poisson, exponential and gamma distributions; expected value and variance; the Central Limit Theorem; hypothesis testing in various scenarios. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of C- in MA 180. *Offered fall semester of even years. Brody, Le.*

**MA 290.
Internship in Mathematics
(3-4 Cr.)**

Students interested in the application of mathematics to government, business, and industry are placed in various companies and agencies to work full time under the guidance of a supervisor. The director confers with individual students as needed. Students are selected for internships appropriate to their training and interest in mathematics and related fields. Prerequisites: junior standing and a major in mathematics. This course is graded pass/no pass only. *Offered fall and spring semesters. Department.*

**MA 299.
Tutorial in Mathematics
(1-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

**MA 304.
Proof Writing Seminar
(1.0 Cr.)**

Introduction to sets, functions, and various mathematical proof techniques including conditional proofs, bi-conditional proofs, proofs by contradiction, induction, and double inclusion. Prerequisites: a minimum grade of C- in MA 221 and MA 222. *Offered fall and spring semesters. Department.*

**MA 313.
Fundamentals of Real Analysis
(4 Cr.)**

A rigorous development of differential and integral calculus, beginning with the completeness of the real number system. The topological structure of the real number system is developed, followed by a rigorous notion of convergence of sequences. Limit, continuity, derivative, and integral are formally defined, culminating in the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Pre- or Co-requisites: MA 304 or MA 311. *Offered spring semester of odd years. Stewart, Webster.*

**MA 314.
Complex Analysis
(4 Cr.)**

This course is an introduction to the theory of analytic functions of one complex variable and covers basic principles in both theory and application. Students will study the complex number system; differentiation; analyticity and Cauchy-Riemann equations; conformal mappings; integration (Cauchy's Theorem and formula); Taylor and Laurent Series expansions and regions of convergence; and singularities and the Residue Theorem. Pre- or Co-requisite: MA 304 or MA 311. *Offered fall semester of odd years. Stewart.*

**MA 316.
Scientific Computation
(4 Cr.)**

An advanced study of the mathematics of numerical approximation including both the analysis of algorithms and the practical implementation found in scientific computing. Topics include: finite precision arithmetic and loss of significance; linear and non-linear systems of equations; approximation theory; numerical differentiation and integration; numerical solution of ordinary differential equations; and an introduction to the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Programming in MATLAB and LaTeX will be required, but prior experience is not necessary. Prerequisite: MA 221 or MA 222 and permission of the instructor. *Webster.*

**MA 321.
Elements of Abstract Algebra
(4 Cr.)**

Abstract algebraic systems, including groups, fields, and rings. Algebraic properties of the integers and real numbers. Pre- or Co-requisite: MA 304 or MA 311. *Offered spring semester of even years. Brody, Le, Tutinas.*

**MA 324.
Combinatorics
(4 Cr.)**

Combinatorics is the study of the ways in which discrete objects can be counted, arranged and constructed. Topics may include permutations and combinations, pigeonhole principle, binomial coefficients, inclusion-exclusion principle, generating functions, and Polya counting. Pre- or Co-requisite: MA 304 or MA 311. *Offered fall semester of even years. Tutinas.*

**MA 333.
Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry
(4 Cr.)**

Euclid's parallel postulate, non-Euclidean geometries, rigorous formulation of Euclidean geometry. The historical and the philosophical implications of non-Euclidean geometries. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of C- in both MA 221 and MA 222, or permission of the instructor. *Spring semester of alternate years beginning in Spring 2014. Tutinas.*

**MA 399.
Tutorial in Mathematics
(4 Cr.)** *Department.*

**MA 400.
Capstone Experience in Mathematics
(2-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

### Computer Science

**CS 105.
Explorations of Computer Programming
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Introduction to the concepts of computer programming using 3-D virtual worlds. Programming constructs such as looping, selection, and data structures, along with the control of objects will be explored. No prior programming experience is required. *Spring semester. Brody, Kelliher, Zimmerman.*

**CS 116.
Introduction to Computer Science
(4 Cr.)** (LER-MR)

Introduction to the discipline of computer science and its unifying concepts through a study of the principles of program specification and design, algorithm development, object-oriented program coding and testing, and visual interface development. Prerequisite: placement exam or CS 105 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Zimmerman.*

**CS 119.
Foundations of Computer Science
(4 Cr.)**

An introduction to the major elements of computer science. Topics include recursion, procedural abstraction, data abstraction, and object-oriented programming. Prerequisite: CS 116 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester.Zimmerman.*

**CS 205.
Software Development
(4 Cr.)**

This course introduces object-oriented design and software design patterns. Advance topics of object-oriented programming including interfaces, polymorphism, inheritance, generic types, multithreading, and user interface programming will be explored. Students will master the programming process with moderately sized projects from specification through complete implementation. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C- . Fall. Zimmerman.

**CS 220.
Computer Architecture
(4 Cr.)**

Organization of contemporary computing systems: instruction set design, arithmetic circuits, control and pipelining, the memory hierarchy, and I/O. Includes topics from the ever-changing state of the art. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Offered 2015-16 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 224.
Principles of Programming Languages
(4 Cr.)**

Study of the underlying principles of programming languages. Topics include procedural activation, data encapsulation, inheritance, and functional and logic programming. Examples from several languages, such as C++, Java, ML, Haskell, and Prolog. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester. Offered 2015-16 and alternate years. Zimmerman.*

**CS 230.
Analysis of Computer Algorithms
(4 Cr.)**

The design of computer algorithms and techniques for analyzing the efficiency and complexity of algorithms. Emphasis on sorting, searching, and graph algorithms. Several general methods of constructing algorithms, such as backtracking and dynamic programming, will be discussed and applications given. Prerequisites: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Brody, Zimmerman.*

**CS 250.
Theory of Computation
(4 Cr.)**

The basic theoretical principles embodied in formal languages, automata, and computability. Topics include finite automata, nondeterministic machines, regular expressions, context-free grammars, Turing machines, Church's thesis, the halting problem, unsolvability, and computational complexity. Prerequisites: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Brody, Zimmerman.*

**CS 290.
Internship in Computer Science
(3-4 Cr.)**

Students interested in the application of computer science to government, business, and industry are placed in various companies and agencies to work full time under the guidance of a supervisor. The director confers with individual students as needed. Students are selected for internships appropriate to their training and interest in computer science and related fields. Prerequisites: junior standing and a major in computer science. This course is graded pass/no pass only. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**CS 299.
Independent Work in Computer Science
(1-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

**CS 311.
Operating Systems
(4 Cr.)**

The study of how modern operating systems are designed through the study of their fundamental pieces. Key features include symmetric multi-processing (SMP), threads, virtualization, demand paging, and virtual memory. Prerequisite: CS 205. *Spring semester. Offered 2015-16 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 317.
Database and Transaction Systems
(4 Cr.)**

The study of the underpinnings of modern database design at the application level, with an implementation of a web-based transaction processing system. Deeper issues which are essential to effective database design include relational algebra, tuple calculus, data organization and indexing strategies, and query processing and optimization. Prerequisite: CS 205. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Zimmerman.*

**CS 320.
Computer Graphics
(4 Cr.)**

An application-oriented introduction to computer graphics. Graphics devices and their programming interfaces. Fundamentals of two-dimensional graphics: rendering, object and view transformations, and interactive animation. Introduction to three-dimensional graphics: clipping, lighting, and hidden-surface removal. Large programming projects in a modern graphics API are an integral part of the course. Prerequisites: CS 205. *Fall semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 340.
Principles of Artificial Intelligence
(4 Cr.)**

An introduction to the field of artificial intelligence, including its tools, techniques, and issues. An overview of search methods, symbolic manipulation, pattern matching, vision, machine learning, expert systems, and robotics. Prerequisite: CS 205. *Fall semester. Offered 2015-16 and alternate years. Brody, Zimmerman.*

**CS 395.
Senior Project
(1-4 Cr.)**

Students work on an individual or a group semester long project to further their understanding of a particular computing problem, issue, or subject area. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a computer science major or minor. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**CS 400.
Independent Work in Computer Science
(2-4 Cr.)** *Department.*