### Mathematics

**MA 100.
Topics in Contemporary Mathematics
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5)(LER–MR)

Selected topics to illustrate the nature of mathematics, its role in society, and its practical and abstract aspects. Applications of mathematics to business and social sciences are explored. Three hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**MA 110.
Problem Solving and Mathematics: Algebra
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

For students majoring in elementary education. Explores various approaches to problem solving by examining topics such as estimating numerical quantities, probability and statistics, the nature of numeric patterns, functions, and relations. The course focuses on the use of various tools, such as calculators and physical models, as aids in problem solving. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam and ED 101 or ED 103 or permission of both the Department of Education and the instructor. *Spring semester of alternate years beginning in Spring 2015. Department.*

**MA 113.
Problem Solving and Mathematics: Geometry
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

For students majoring in elementary education. Explores various approaches to problem solving by examining topics such as spatial sense and measurement with respect to various geometries, properties of curves and surfaces, coordinate geometry, and transformations. The course focuses on the use of various tools, such as calculators and physical models, as aids in problem solving. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam and ED 101 or ED 103 or permission of both the Department of Education and the instructor. *Spring semester of alternate years beginning in Spring 2014. Department.*

**MA 140.
Introduction to Statistics
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

Basic concepts of descriptive statistics, simple probability distributions, prediction of population parameters from samples. Problems chosen from the natural and social sciences. Use of the computer in the analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam. Credit will not be given for those who have received credit for MA 141 . *Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Webster.*

**MA 141.
Statistical Data Analysis with Environmental Issues in View
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5 and #11) (LER–MR AND ENV)

Basic concepts of descriptive statistics, simple probability distributions, and prediction of population parameters from samples are developed as a means to analyze environmental issues and the debates centered on them. Use of computer in analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam. Credit will not be given for those who have received credit for MA 140, MA 168 , MA 241 , EC 206 , or PSY 200 . *Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Webster.*

**MA 145.
Applied Matrix Algebra
(3 Cr.)**

This course will provide an introduction to vectors and matrices and their use. The course will be driven by applications chosen among robotics, computer graphics, coding theory, cryptography, game theory, information retrieval and web search, and machine learning. For example, students will learn Google's PageRank method for ranking web pages. Prerequisite: placement exam. Spring every other year. First offered 2013. Brody.

**MA 160.
Precalculus
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

An applications-oriented, investigative approach to the study of the mathematical topics needed for further coursework in mathematics. The unifying theme is the study of functions, including polynomials; rational functions; and exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. Graphing calculators and/or the computer will be used as an integral part of the course. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: placement exam. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Kelliher.*

**MA 168.
Statistical Methods for the Sciences
(4 Cr.)** (GEN.ED. #5) (LER MR)

An introduction to statistics with special attention given to methods used in 200 and 300 level science courses. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability models, random variables, expectation, sampling, the central limit theorem, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, two-sample problems, analysis of variance, regression analysis, and nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: MA 160 or a Mathematics Placement of H or higher. *Fall semesters, first offered Fall 2013. Webster*

**MA 170.
Calculus I
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

The concepts of limit and derivative are developed, along with their applications to the natural and social sciences. Prerequisite: placement exam or MA 160 with a minimum grade of C-. Prerequisite to MA 180. Credit will not be given for those who have received credit for MA 171. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Department.*

**MA 171.
Calculus I—Environmental
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5 and #11) (LER–MR AND ENV)

The concepts of limit and derivative are developed, along with their applications to environmental sustainability issues. A symbolic algebra system is used as both an investigative and computational tool. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory. Prerequisite: placement exam or MA 160 with a minimum grade of C-. Prerequisite to MA 180 . Credit will not be given for those who have received credit for MA 170. *Fall or Spring semester. Webster.*

**MA 180.
Calculus II
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

The concepts of Riemann sums and definite and indefinite integrals are developed, along with their applications to the natural and social sciences. Prerequisite: placement exam or MA 170 or MA 171 with a minimum grade of C-. Prerequisite to MA 216, MA 221, MA 222 and MA 240. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Department.*

**MA 216.
Introduction to Applied Mathematics
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Selected topics in applied mathematics offered at the intermediate level. Possible topics include discrete dynamical systems, graph theory, operations research, game theory, and elementary mathematical modeling. Course may be repeated for credit if a different topic is offered. Three hours lecture. Prerequisite: MA 180 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Tutinas.*

**MA 221.
Linear Algebra
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Vector spaces, linear equations and matrices, linear transformations, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: MA 180 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester. Tutinas.*

**MA 222.
Calculus III
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Three-dimensional analytic geometry, infinite series, functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and vector calculus. Four hours lecture. Prerequisite: MA 180 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Department.*

**MA 231.
Differential Equations with Applications
(3 Cr.)**

Introduction to the theory of linear and nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. Equal emphasis on analytic, qualitative, and numeric methods. Applications to biological sciences, chemistry, ecology, economics, physics, and other sciences, including some work in mathematical modeling. Three hours lecture. Pre- or Co-Requisite: MA 221 with a minimum grade of C- *Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Webster.*

**MA 240.
Probability
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Probability in sample spaces, discrete and continuous random variables, special distributions, expected value and variance, and Central Limit Theorem. Three hours lecture. Prerequisite: MA 180 with a "C-" or better. *Fall semester. Offered 2012-13 and alternate years. Department.*

**MA 260.
History of Mathematics
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #4 and #7)

Selected topics in the history of mathematics chosen to show how mathematical concepts evolve. Topics include number, function, geometry, and calculus. Consideration of the cultural, social, and economic forces that have influenced the development of mathematics. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 221 and MA 222 with grades of "C-" or better. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Lewand.*

**MA 290.
Internship in Mathematics
(3-4 Cr.)**

Students interested in the application of mathematics to government, business, and industry are placed in various companies and agencies to work full time under the guidance of a supervisor. The director confers with individual students as needed. Students are selected for internships appropriate to their training and interest in mathematics and related fields. Prerequisites: junior standing and a major in mathematics. This course is graded pass/no pass only. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**MA 299.
Independent Work in Mathematics
(1-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

**MA 311.
Introduction to Higher Mathematics
(3 Cr.)**

An introduction to proof techniques within the context of the following topics: elementary set theory, functions and relations, and algebraic structures. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 221 and MA 222. *Fall semester. Brody and Webster.*

**MA 313.
Fundamentals of Real Analysis
(3 Cr.)**

A rigorous development of differential and integral calculus, beginning with the completeness of the real number system. The topological structure of the real number system is developed, followed by a rigorous notion of convergence of sequences. Limit, continuity, derivative, and integral are formally defined, culminating in the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 311. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Webster.*

**MA 315.
Topics in Pure Mathematics
(3 Cr.)**

Possible topics: combinatorics, complex analysis, number theory, point set topology, or cryptology. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 311 and permission of the instructor. *Fall semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Lewand and Tutinas.*

**MA 321.
Elements of Abstract Algebra
(3 Cr.)**

Abstract algebraic systems, including groups, fields, and rings. Algebraic properties of the integers and real numbers. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 311. *Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Lewand.*

**MA 333.
Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry
(3 Cr.)**

Euclid’s parallel postulate, non-Euclidean geometries, rigorous formulation of Euclidean geometry. The historical and the philosophical implications of non-Euclidean geometries. Three hours lecture. Prerequisite: MA 221 or MA 222 with a "C-" or better, or permission of the instructor. *Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Tutinas.*

**MA 347.
Topics in Applied Mathematics
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #7)

Possible topics: modeling and simulation, theory of games, applied functional analysis, advanced numerical analysis, boundary value problems of mathematical physics, applied algebra, and biomathematics. Course may be repeated for credit if a different topic is offered. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: MA 221, MA 222, and permission of the instructor. *Fall semester. Offered 2011-12 and alternate years. Webster.*

**MA 400.
Independent Work in Mathematics
(1-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

### Computer Science

**CS 105.
Explorations of Computer Programming
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER–MR)

Introduction to the concepts of computer programming using 3-D virtual worlds. Programming constructs such as looping, selection, and data structures, along with the control of objects will be explored. No prior programming experience is required. *Fall semester, repeated Spring semester. Brody, Kelliher, Zimmerman.*

**CS 116.
Introduction to Computer Science
(4 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #5) (LER-MR)

Introduction to the discipline of computer science and its unifying concepts through a study of the principles of program specification and design, algorithm development, object-oriented program coding and testing, and visual interface development. Prerequisite: placement exam or CS 105 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Zimmerman.*

**CS 119.
Foundations of Computer Science
(4 Cr.)**

An introduction to the major elements of computer science. Topics include recursion, procedural abstraction, data abstraction, and object-oriented programming. Prerequisite: CS 116 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester.Zimmerman.*

**CS 205.
Software Development
(3 Cr.)**

This course introduces object-oriented design and software design patterns. Advance topics of object-oriented programming including interfaces, polymorphism, inheritance, generic types, multithreading, and user interface programming will be explored. Students will master the programming process with moderately sized projects from specification through complete implementation. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C- . Fall. Zimmerman.

**CS 220.
Computer Architecture
(4 Cr.)**

Organization of contemporary computing systems: instruction set design, arithmetic circuits, control and pipelining, the memory hierarchy, and I/O. Includes topics from the ever-changing state of the art. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 224.
Principles of Programming Languages
(4 Cr.)**

Study of the underlying principles of programming languages. Topics include procedural activation, data encapsulation, inheritance, and functional and logic programming. Examples from several languages, such as C++, Java, ML, Haskell, and Prolog. Prerequisite: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Zimmerman.*

**CS 230.
Analysis of Computer Algorithms
(4 Cr.)**

The design of computer algorithms and techniques for analyzing the efficiency and complexity of algorithms. Emphasis on sorting, searching, and graph algorithms. Several general methods of constructing algorithms, such as backtracking and dynamic programming, will be discussed and applications given. Prerequisites: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Fall semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Brody, Zimmerman.*

**CS 250.
Theory of Computation
(4 Cr.)**

The basic theoretical principles embodied in formal languages, automata, and computability. Topics include finite automata, nondeterministic machines, regular expressions, context-free grammars, Turing machines, Church’s thesis, the halting problem, unsolvability, and computational complexity. Prerequisites: CS 119 with a minimum grade of C-. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Zimmerman.*

**CS 290.
Internship in Computer Science
(3-4 Cr.)**

Students interested in the application of computer science to government, business, and industry are placed in various companies and agencies to work full time under the guidance of a supervisor. The director confers with individual students as needed. Students are selected for internships appropriate to their training and interest in computer science and related fields. Prerequisites: junior standing and a major in computer science. This course is graded pass/no pass only. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**CS 299.
Independent Work in Computer Science
(1-4 Cr.)** *Department.*

**CS 311.
Operating Systems
(3 Cr.)**

The study of how modern operating systems are designed through the study of their fundamental pieces. Key features include symmetric multi-processing (SMP), threads, virtualization, demand paging, and virtual memory. Prerequisite: CS 205 *Spring semester. Offered 2013-2014 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 317.
Database and Transaction Systems
(3 Cr.)**

The study of the underpinnings of modern database design at the application level, with an implementation of a web-based transaction processing system. Deeper issues which are essential to effective database design include relational algebra, tuple calculus, data organization and indexing strategies, and query processing and optimization. Prerequisite: CS 205. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Zimmerman.*

**CS 320.
Computer Graphics
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #7)

An application-oriented introduction to computer graphics. Graphics devices and their programming interfaces. Fundamentals of two-dimensional graphics: rendering, object and view transformations, and interactive animation. Introduction to three-dimensional graphics: clipping, lighting, and hidden-surface removal. Large programming projects in a modern graphics API are an integral part of the course. Prerequisites: CS 205. *Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Kelliher.*

**CS 340.
Principles of Artificial Intelligence
(3 Cr.)** (GEN. ED. #7)

An introduction to the field of artificial intelligence, including its tools, techniques, and issues. An overview of search methods, symbolic manipulation, pattern matching, vision, machine learning, expert systems, and robotics. Prerequisite: CS 205. *Fall semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Brody, Zimmerman.*

**CS 395.
Senior Project
(1-4 Cr.)**

Students work on an individual or a group semester long project to further their understanding of a particular computing problem, issue, or subject area. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a computer science major or minor. *Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.*

**CS 400.
Independent Work in Computer Science
(2-4 Cr.)** *Department.*