BIO 104. Biological Diversity I: Kingdoms of Organisms (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6)(LER–NS)
An evolutionary approach is used to study the structure, function, and diversity of prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and invertebrates. Laboratory work emphasizes experimentation and observation of living organisms in studies of functional morphology and adaptation. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory. BIO 104 is required for biology majors and highly recommended for students who will take additional courses in biology. Students considering electing BIO 104 to fulfill the general education requirement are encouraged to consult with an instructor or departmental chair. Fall semester.Hiller, Kicklighter.

BIO 104H. Biological Diversity I: Honors Colloquium (1 Cr.) 
Once-a-week meetings to explore current issues and research relevant to BIO 104. Special presentations, discussions, and field trips. Prerequisite: admission by placement. Fall semester. Hiller, Andrews.

BIO 105. Biological Diversity II: The Vertebrates (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6) (LER–NS)
An examination of the distinctive features and adaptations of the vertebrates from the viewpoint of evolutionary breakthrough and adaptive radiation. Also considered is the origin of the vertebrates from echinoderm and chordate ancestors. Laboratory studies examine aspects of physiology, development, and behavior, as well as comparative morphology. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 104 recommended but not required. BIO 105 is recommended for non-science students needing to fulfill the laboratory natural sciences requirement. Spring semester. Delahunty, Shambaugh.

BIO 105H. Biological Diversity II: Honors Colloquium (1 Cr.) 
Once-a-week meetings to explore current issues and research relevant to BIO 105. Special presentations, discussions, and field trips. Prerequisite: admission by placement. Spring semester.Ratrie, Hodge.

BIO 107. Nutrition (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6) (LER–NS)
Introduction to the chemical and biological aspects of nutrition, the basic nutrients and their effects on our health and on the environment. Topics such as the energy needs of athletes, weight control, diet fads, supplements and herbs, food safety, and food and drug interactions will be discussed in class, and their understanding will be enhanced through laboratory experiments and fields trips. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisite: one first-level natural science course or high school or college chemistry course. Spring Semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Delahunty.

BIO 109. Nutrition (lecture Only) (3 Cr.) 
Introduction to the chemical and biological aspects of nutrition, the basic nutrients and their effects on our health and on the environment. Topics such as the energy needs of athletes, weight control, diet fads, supplements and herbs, food safety, and food and drug interactions will be discussed in class. Three hours lecture. Prerequisite: one first-level natural science course or high school or college chemistry course. Spring Semester. Offered 2013-2014 and alternate years. TBA.

BIO 111. Human Genetics (3.5 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6) (LER–NS)
A lecture and laboratory course that examines the science of genetics. Topics include structure and function of DNA and genomes, principles of inheritance, and control of gene function in humans and other selected organisms. The laboratory component will introduce students to fundamental genetic and molecular genetic techniques. The course will emphasize how human health and welfare are influenced by basic principles of modern genetic technology. Prerequisite: High school biology or chemistry recommended. Course not open to students enrolled in BIO 220 or biological sciences majors. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Hiller.

BIO 170. Environmental Alternatives (3.5 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 and #11)(LER–NS AND ENV)
Critical evaluation of pressing environmental issues such as population growth, acid rain, biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion, and toxic wastes. Special emphasis on how these problems affect the Chesapeake Bay. Examination of conflicting views about the seriousness of these threats and examination of alternative solutions within the context of economic, cultural, and political factors. Four hours lecture/laboratory. Laboratory includes several field trips. This course fulfills the college laboratory science requirement. Prerequisites: none. High school biology or chemistry strongly recommended. Fall semester. Repeated spring semester.Kicklighter, Kjellerup.

BIO 204. Environmental Engineering (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #11) (LER – ENV)
Critical examination of current problems related to environmental engineering approaches applied to protect resources, human health, and the environmental quality. Topics include: Environmental Health Microbiology (drinking water, sewer processes and wastewater), Xenobiotics (Man-made toxic compounds), Sustainable Waste Technology and Life Cycle Assessment (evaluation of products from “Cradle-to-Grave”). Emphasis is on the environmental impacts of the Greater Baltimore area and the Chesapeake Bay including water sheds and on the protection of resources. Lectures, student presentations & discussion, guest lectures and field trips to facilities such treatment plants for drinking water and wastewater. Prerequisites: BIO 104 or ES 100 or CHE 106/ CHE 111. Spring Semester. Offered 2014 and alternate years, Kjellerup.

BIO 209. Animal Behavior (3 Cr.) 
This course will introduce the field of animal behavior and the study of the development, causation, and function from a biological perspective. We will focus on many important biological activities such as foraging, communication, migration, predator-prey interactions, mating, and parental care. The evolution and adaptive significance of behavior will be emphasized. This course is offered on line. Students will be expected to complete some observational and experimental studies where they are located. Prerequisites: BIO 104 or BIO 105 or permission of instructor. Summer 2013. M.Roy.

BIO 210. Cell Biology and Biochemistry (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 214)
Study of the smallest unit of life focusing on the molecular characteristics of cell components that determine cell behavior. Topics include the composition and structure of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles in relation to transport, communication, metabolism, division, and locomotion. The models used to explain cell structure, function, and evolution are evaluated in terms of results from selected experiments. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion. Prerequisites: one college-level biology course and CHE 151 and CHE 152 (or CHE 152H). Fall semester. Lenkowski, Levin.

BIO 214. Techniques in Cell Biology (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 210)
Students learn current technology and experimental procedures used for research in cell biology. Laboratory procedures include biochemical techniques in quantitative analysis, enzyme kinetics, protein purification, and cell fractionation, as well as traditional microscopic techniques in histology and histochemistry. Three hours laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 210 or concurrent enrollment. Fall semester. Lenkowski, Levin, Hodge.

BIO 220. Principles of Genetics (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 224)
Concepts of heredity and their application in a wide variety of organisms from bacteria to humans. Includes classical transmission genetics, chromosomal structure, DNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, extra-nuclear heredity, and introduction to molecular analysis of genes and chromosomes. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion. Prerequisites: BIO 210 (C- or better) and CHE 230. Spring semester. Ratrie.

BIO 224. Techniques in Genetics and Molecular Biology (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 220)
Laboratory experience with techniques used in genetics and molecular biology research. These include the use of mutant strains to carry out genetic analyses such as genotypic and phenotypic characterizations, segregation analysis, and genetic mapping. Molecular techniques used to manipulate and analyze DNA are integrated with the genetics analysis and include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease digestion-site mapping. Prerequisite: BIO 210, BIO 214, BIO 220 or concurrent enrollment. Spring semester. Andrews, Levin.

BIO 238. Ecology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #11) (LER–ENV)
An introduction to the diverse terrestrial, marine, and aquatic habitats of the Earth and how the organisms found these habitats interact with their biotic and abiotic environment. Individual, population, community, and ecosystem levels of ecology will be discussed, with an emphasis on environmental sustainability and how climate change and other human induced activities may impact the ecology of organisms. Lecture, discussion, and some fieldwork. Course not open to students enrolled in BIO 240 or biological science majors or minors. Prerequisite: BIO 104. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Kicklighter.

BIO 240. Ecology and Evolution (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 241, and #11) (LER–ENV)
The distinctive features of diverse terrestrial and aquatic habitats are examined to discover how they affect individual, population, and community processes. Ecological and evolutionary theory is used to explore the relationships between structure and function in ecosystems, and current models are used to probe the nature of population growth and its regulation. Special emphasis will be placed on environmental sustainability and how climate changes and other human induced activities may impact the ecology of organisms. The mechanisms of evolution are illustrated using examples from population genetics, speciation, and co-evolution. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 220. Fall semester. Kicklighter.

BIO 243. Field Methods in Tropical Ecology (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 and #11)
Targeting natural/biological science majors, this course will explore topics of tropical ecology (biodiversity, cloud forest ecosystems, and others) in greater depth, with emphasis placed on learning research methodologies that can be used in field-based or laboratory research. Prerequisite: One course in biology or ecology with a lab or field component.

BIO 243. Field Methods in Tropical Ecology (4 Cr.) 
Targeting natural/biological science majors, this course will explore topics of tropical ecology (biodiversity, cloud forest ecosystems, and others in greater depth, with emphasis placed on learning research methodologies that can be used in field based or laboratory research).

BIO 244. Environmental Sustainability (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #11) (LER–ENV)
Students examine and analyze concepts of sustainability and their global and local interpretations and meanings as framed by global-local issues: climate change, ecotourism and economic development, environmentalism, human health, conservation, and biodiversity. Emphasis is placed on contextualized examples of environmental, economic, social, political, and cultural tensions related to sustainability. Includes field trips, exercises, and guest lectures by local scientists and activists. This course will not count toward the major. Credit will be awarded only one time—for Goucher’s BIO 170 or this course (BIO 244).

BIO 244. Environmental Sustainability (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #11)
Students examine and analyze concepts of sustainability and their global and local interpretations and meaning as framed by global-local issues: Climate change, ecotourism and economic development, environmentalism, human health, conservation, and biodiversity. Emphasis is placed on contextualized examples of environmental, economic, social, political, and cultural tensions related to sustainability. Includes field trips, exercises and guest lectures by local scientists and activists.

BIO 260. Principles of Physiology (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6)
Systems approach to the physiological processes of the body, emphasizing humans, including nerve, muscle, circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, endocrine, acid-base balance, and metabolism. Laboratory work introduces standard methods used in physiological investigations and emphasizes data interpretation with regard to known physiological mechanisms. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 210 and BIO 214. Fall semester. Delahunty.

BIO 261. Human Anatomy (4 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6)
An introductory human anatomy course that emphasizes the relationship between form and function. A combined approach of lecture, laboratory and interactive learning technologies will be employed to demonstrate normal function and clinical variation. A systems approach including musculoskeletal, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary systems will be used. Early development stages and organization at the cellular, tissue and anatomical region levels will be integrated into the systems approach. Students will acquire the fundamentals of human anatomy relevant for clinical application. Students will be required to work with preserved bones, organs and specimens for dissection. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory. Prerequisite: one college Biology course. Spring Semester and occasional summer. Offered 2014 and Alternate years. Ratrie, Delahunty.

BIO 272G. Intensive Course Abroad: Tropical Marine Biology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #3 and #11) (LER-ENV and LER-SA)
This course requires a three-week intensive course abroad in the fall or spring semester. An intensive three-week investigation of Caribbean reefs and other tropical marine habitats. Daily field trips allow maximum exposure to the unique and diverse coral reef community with additional excursions to grass beds and mangrove forests. Primary focus on the structure and function of coral reef systems and on the biology of the dominant organisms therein. Field trips will be supplemented by lectures, films, slides, and appropriate reading. Primary emphasis is on analysis of coral reef structures and function in situ through direct observation and field experiments. Taught during the January intersession at the Institute for Marine Studies on the island of Roatan in Honduras. Prerequisites: BIO 104, BIO 105, or permission of the instructor. Scuba certification strongly recommended. January intersession. Offered 2015 and alternate years. Hodge, Kicklighter.

BIO 279. Directed Reading in Biological Sciences (1-3 Cr.) 
Directed reading allows a student to pursue an area of special interest not covered by a formal course by designing, in collaboration with the instructor, readings tailored to the topic.    Prerequisites: BIO 104 and/or BIO 105 and appropriate 200-level courses. Permission of the instructor and approval of the department are required. Fall semester, repeated spring semester. Department

BIO 290. Internship in Biological Sciences (3-4 Cr.) 
Typical internships include positions in university, government, or industrial research laboratories, medical or veterinary practices, zoos, botanical gardens, the National Aquarium in Baltimore, and oceanographic research vessels. Prerequisites: BIO 104 or BIO 105 and appropriate 200-level courses. Graded pass/no pass only. Variable semesters.Department.

BIO 291. Directed Research in the Biological Sciences (2 Cr.) 
Under the direction of a departmental faculty member, students conduct laboratory or field research. Students initially write a brief research plan, outlining major goals of the research project. Upon completion of the research, students submit a report written in the form of a journal article to the faculty sponsor. The course may be repeated once with the same, or a different, faculty member. Only two credits of directed research may be counted toward the 40-credit total for the biology major. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the department. Students who wish to be considered for honors within the biology major must complete an appropriate senior independent research course. (BIO 390Y- BIO 399Y ) Fall semester, spring semester, summer.Department.

BIO 320. Seminar in Neurobiology (3 Cr.) 
This seminar will focus on how nervous systems develop and function. Topics will include developmental neurobiology, function of the central nervous system, regeneration, and diseases of the central nervous system. Through critical analysis of primary scientific literature, students will become familiar with study systems, experimental methods used, and current knowledge in the field of neurobiology. Lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Prerequisite: BIO 220. First offered 2014 and alternate years. Lenkowski.

BIO 324. Advanced Molecular Biology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 324L and GEN. ED. #7)
Topics include construction of recombinant DNA molecules; recombinant protein expression, purification and characterization and structure-function characterization; gene expression analyses; analysis of protein-protein interactions, enzymes and metabolism. The course also provides basic training in the use of bioinformatics tools to “mine” Web-based data on a variety of levels and alternate years. Prerequisites: BIO 220 and BIO 224. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Slocum.

BIO 324L. Advanced Molecular Biology Lab (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 324)
The laboratory will provide the student with opportunities to investigate questions relating to basic biological processes and to design independent research projects that employ bioinformatics and advanced molecular biology techniques in an integrated manner. Prerequisites BIO 220 and BIO 224 and concurrent enrollment in BIO 324. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Slocum.

BIO 327. Advanced Genetics (3 Cr.) (Gen.Ed. #6 with BIO 328)
This course provides an understanding of the control and expression of genes at the molecular level with an emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Topics focus on genetic analyses of selected model systems, including Drosophila, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, and human. Student participation and use of original literature are emphasized. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 210 and BIO 220. Fall semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Hiller.

BIO 328. Advanced Genetics Laboratory (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 327)
This laboratory focuses on the practical applications of molecular genetic techniques in the study of the regulation and expression of genes. Group experimental projects designed to allow the development of research techniques and analysis familiarize students with molecular and classical genetic methodologies in selected model genetic systems. Molecular techniques include cloning, gene mapping, restriction fragment analysis, Western and Northern blotting, in situ hybridization, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 224, BIO 327 or concurrent enrollment. Fall semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Hiller.

BIO 333. Plant Physiology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 and GEN. ED. #11 with BIO 334)
Examination of factors influencing the growth and development of plants (water; mineral nutrients; hormones and chemical regulators; and environmental factors such as temperature, gravity, and light). Also included are biochemical and molecular aspects of important metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 214 and BIO 220. Spring semester. Slocum.

BIO 334. Plant Physiology Laboratory (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 333)
Laboratory exercises include plant tissue culture, analysis of photosynthetic activities of isolated chloroplasts, enzyme assays, isolation of alkaloids from root cultures of transformed plants, and effects of light and hormones on plant development; independent research project. Three hours laboratory. Prerequisites: BIO 214. Co-requisite: BIO 333. Spring semester. Offered 2013-2014 and alternate years. Slocum.

BIO 343. Chemical Ecology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 and #11 with BIO 343L)
An introduction to how organisms use chemicals to gather information about and interact with their environment. Topics include how chemicals mediate interactions between individuals and their environment (finding nesting sites or suitable habitat), between different species (finding food/hosts, defending against predators), and between members of the same species (finding a mate). Three hour lecture. Prerequisite: BIO 240. Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Kicklighter.

BIO 343L. Chemical Ecology Laboratory (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 343)
This laboratory focuses on the behavioral, physiological, and chemical techniques used to study how chemicals are utilized by species to interact with their environment. Experimental design will be emphasized and based on lecture topics, students will conduct experiments to investigate the use of chemicals by various organisms. In addition, students will learn how to isolate and to identify these chemical signals. Co-requisite: BIO 343. Spring semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Kicklighter.

BIO 344. Field Ecology Laboratory (2 Cr.) 
Practical experience in field and laboratory techniques to examine terrestrial and aquatic ecology, including species identification and quantification. Emphasis on experimental design and quantitative analysis. One hour lecture, three hours laboratory. Weekend field trips. Prerequisite: BIO 240 or concurrent enrollment. Fall semester. Offered 2014-2015. Kicklighter

BIO 354. Microbiology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 354L)
An introduction to the structure, physiology, genetics, ecology, and the evolution of microorganisms. Special attention is given to the role of microbes in industry and in infectious diseases. Chemotherapeutic and immune control of infectious diseases are also discussed in detail. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 210, BIO 220, BIO 224 and CHE 230. Fall semester.Kjellerup.

BIO 354L. Microbiology Laboratory (2 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 354)
Laboratory work includes isolation, identification, and cultivation of microbes. Students learn common microbiology techniques and the biology of selected groups by characterizing their morphology, ecology, physiology, and biochemistry. Identification through classical phenotypic methods is compared to identification by molecular methods. One hour lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 224. Fall semester.Kjellerup.

BIO 355. Seminar in Microbiology–Biofilms (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #7)
Critical examination of current research problems and findings as well as the synthesis of primary literature in microbiology. Emphasis is on the different ways that communities of microorganisms (also referred to as biofilms) influence human health and activities. In addition, environmental biofilms and beneficial biofilms involved in bioremediation and waste water treatment will also be emphasized. Also included are molecular techniques to study and survey biofilms, biofilm structural analyses, industrial applications, host-pathogen interactions in biofilm infections, extreme environmental biofilms, biofilm elimination and growth strategies. Emphasis on primary literature. Lecture, discussion, student presentations. Prerequisites: BIO 210 and BIO 220. Spring Semester. Offered 2014 and alternate years. Kjellerup.

BIO 362. Endocrinology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 363)
A study of the vertebrate endocrine system. Topics include endocrine gland morphology, hormone syntheses and biochemistry, and hormonal regulation of physiological function with particular regard to growth, metabolism, reproduction, and electrolyte balance. Neuroendocrinology and mechanisms of hormone action are also considered in detail. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 210, BIO 224, and BIO 260. Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Delahunty.

BIO 363. Endocrinology Laboratory (2 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 362)
Practical experience with endocrine methodology. Laboratory exercises with vertebrate organisms include animal surgery, hormone replacement therapy, and demonstration of hormonal regulation via negative feedback mechanisms. Basics of radioimmunoassay and studies demonstrating the mechanism of hormone action are included. One hour lecture, three hours laboratory. Corequisite: BIO 362. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Delahunty.

BIO 369. Special Topics in Biology (1-4 Cr.) 
Special topics of current interest. Topics are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for credit if topic is different. Prerequisite: dependent on topic. Variable semesters. Department.  

BIO 374. Seminar in Mechanisms of Aging and Cancer (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #7)
Investigation into the current understanding of biochemical processes that underlie progressive aging in humans. Topics include the evolution of senescence, the genetic and environmental components of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cancer, and the implications of current research that is aimed at improving the quality and longevity of human life. Lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Prerequisite: BIO 210 and BIO 220 or CHE 341. Spring semester. Offered 2014-2015 and alternate years. Levin.

BIO 376. Developmental Biology (4 Cr.) 
The developmental sequence of events that leads to the formation of an embryo is described using selected animal systems. Theories on the underlying mechanisms of the processes that create controlled growth, specified form, and cell specialization are evaluated using experimental evidence. Histological study of embryo anatomy and experience with cell culture are included. Four hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 210, BIO 220, and BIO 224. Spring semester. Lenkowski.

BIO 378. Developmental Biology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 378L)
The developmental sequence of events that leads to the formation of an embryo is described using selected animal systems. Theories on the underlying mechanisms of the processes that create controlled growth, specified form, and cell specialization are evaluated using experimental evidence. Three hours lecture. Prerequisites: BIO 210, BIO 220, and BIO 224. Co-requisite: BIO 378L. Spring semester. Lenkowski.

BIO 378L. Developmental Biology Laboratory (1 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #6 with BIO 378)
Anatomy of the embryo is studied histologically. Differentiation and growth are examined using experimental systems in vitro. Three hours laboratory. Spring semester. Lenkowski.

BIO 380. Directed Reading in Biological Sciences (3 Cr.) 
Reading program designed in consultation with an instructor in an area not covered by formal course work. Directed reading at the 300 level would require integration and critical evaluation of current literature well beyond that required for BIO 280 -BIO 289 . Prerequisites: appropriate 00-level and/or 300-level courses, permission of instructor, and approval of the department. Fall semester, repeated spring semester.Department.

BIO 382. Seminar in Genetics and Human Disease (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #7)
The seminar will examine cell signaling pathways that function during animal development and are implicated in cancer and other human diseases. Classical and molecular genetic analysis f human disease and model genetic systems will be emphasized. Attention will focus on how the study of human disease can shed light on basic biological function. Primary literature, discussions and student presentations. Prerequisite: BIO 220 and BIO 224. Fall semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Hiller.

BIO 384. Seminar in Marine Ecology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #7)
Examination of the structure and function of diverse marine ecosystems, including the Chesapeake Bay, coral reefs, deep ocean, and polar seas. Emphasis on current research and theory through critical examination of primary literature. Oral presentations. Prerequisite: BIO 240. Spring semester. Offered 2014-15 and alternate years. Kicklighter

BIO 387. Seminar in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (3 Cr.) (GEN. ED. #7)
Seminar focuses on use of molecular biology techniques to understand plant growth and development, to improve agriculturally important plants, to modify plant metabolism for production of pharmaceuticals, etc. Societal impact of GMO, food safety and related issues considered. Emphasis on primary scientific literature. Lecture, discussions, student presentations. Prerequisites: BIO 210 and BIO 220. Fall semester. Offered 2013-14 and alternate years. Slocum.

BIO 390Y. Independent Research in Biological Sciences (2/2 Cr.) 
A special opportunity for advanced students to pursue their own research topic. Students considering graduate studies should explore this possibility with a departmental faculty sponsor. Under the guidance of the faculty sponsor, the student designs laboratory or field research for one or two semesters. The research may take place on campus or at an off-campus laboratory. Results of the research will be submitted in a format suitable for publication in a research journal in the field of study. Independent research and oral presentation of research findings in a departmental seminar are required for graduation with honors in the major. Students may earn up to four credits per year. Prerequisites: permission of the instructor and approval of the department. For further details, consult the Information Handbook for the Major in the Biological Sciences. Fall semester, repeated spring semester; summer. Department.

COSTA RICAN EXPERIENCE
This is a 15-week interdisciplinary program consisting of four 4-credit courses, including three core courses: Spanish Language and Culture, Environmental Sustainability (BIO 244), and Development and Social Change in Costa Rica. Students can choose between Field Methods in Tropical Ecology (BIO 243) and Topics in Social Sciences for the fourth course. Courses are taught by Monteverde Institute faculty and are conducted in English except for Spanish Language and Culture.