Since it was founded in 1885, Goucher has been firmly committed to excellence in liberal arts and sciences education. Originally named the Woman's College of Baltimore, the college was founded by the Reverend John Franklin Goucher, after whom it was renamed in 1910. When it was established, Goucher was located in downtown Baltimore, on land deeded to the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church by Reverend Goucher. By the early 1920s, the college's trustees had decided to move the campus from the increasingly congested city to a newly purchased tract in Towson, eight miles north of the city, a move completed in 1953.

In 2010, Goucher observed its 125th anniversary, bringing generations of students past and present together to remember the institution's history and celebrate its future.